Hip Dysplasia (HD) 2017-01-06T22:03:09+00:00

Hip Dysplasia (HD)

Hip dysplasia is a common condition of large breed dogs. The larger the dog, the more likely the development of this problem becomes, particularly as the dog ages.

What is Hip Dysplasia?

The term dysplasia means abnormal growth, thus hip dysplasia means abnormal growth of the hips. Hip dysplasia occurs during a puppy’s growing phase and refers to a poor fit of the “ball and socket”.

When a dog has hip dysplasia, the ball and socket do not fit smoothly. The socket is flattened and the ball is not held tightly in place, thus allowing for some slipping. This makes for an unstable joint and the body’s attempts to stabilize the joint only end up yielding arthritis.

Normal Canine Hips

Normal Canine Hips

Bad Hip Dysplasia

Bad Hip Dysplasia

If Hip Dysplasia starts in puppyhood why are most affected dogs elderly?

There are two sets of dogs typically affected by hip dysplasia.

The first group is the adolescent dog, typically 6 to 18 months of age. The radiograph on the right above shows the hips of such a young dog. This dog has hip dysplasia but has not yet developed arthritis. Note the shallow hip sockets. This dog was brought to the veterinarian clinic because of discomfort. Radiographs discovered hip dysplasia.

The second group are dogs with similar radiographs who are not in pain and thus will not end up coming in for an evaluation. These dogs don’t have pain until they are elderly, after they have been walking on their poorly formed hips for many years. Bony build up along the margins of the socket, mineralization of the joint capsule, cartilage wear, and inflammatory change in the joint (i.e. degenerative arthritis) have become painful.

Hip Dysplasia development

Hip Dysplasia development

What causes Hip Dysplasia?

The primary cause of hip dysplasia is genetic but inheritance of this trait is not as simple as a dominance/recessive relationship like we study in high school biology. Normal dogs can breed and yield dysplastic offspring as the condition may skip generations. Until a test based on the actual DNA can be developed, the best we can do to prevent this disease is to breed only dogs with normal hips, scored by the NZVA or AVA.

Nutritional factors are also important in the development of hip dysplasia. For example, it has been popular to try to nutritionally “push” a large breed puppy to grow faster or larger by providing extra protein, more calcium, or even just extra food. Practices such as these have been disastrous, leading to bones and muscle growing at different rates and creating assorted joint diseases of which hip dysplasia is one. One study showed that when puppies of hip dysplasia prone breeds were allowed to free feed, two thirds went on to develop hip dysplasia while only one third developed hip dysplasia when the same diet was fed in meals. Another study showed German Shepherds were nearly twice as likely to develop hip dysplasia if their adult weights were above average.

Studies such as these have led to the development of puppy foods designed for large breed puppies, where the optimal nutritional plane is lower than for small breed puppies.

Excessive exercise in a young dog aged 3 till 18 months. Such as repetitive movements: walking stairs, jumping in cars and jumping over gates. But also rough play or walks that are too long for the puppies age.

How Can we reduce the chance of Hip dysplasia?

When purchasing a puppy, particularly one of a larger breed, the parents should be hip scored with the NZVA or AVA. Score results no more than 10 in total, with a goal of reducing the incidence of hip dysplasia. What this means is that the breeder has had the hips of the dog’s parents x-rayed by a vet and send off to an official scoring team of independent vets. A dog for breeding can have radiographs taken at age 12-18 months. Offspring of parents with a hip score under 10 would be less likely to develop dysplasia themselves.

Hip Dysplasia Statistics

Hip Dysplasia by Breed Source:

Breeds having at least 100 evaluations January 1974 through December 2012

Breed

Rank

Number of Evaluations

Percent Excellent

Percent Dysplastic

BULLDOG

1

536

.4

72.0

PUG

2

483

.0

67.1

DOGUE DE BORDEAUX

3

431

1.2

57.3

OTTERHOUND

4

395

.3

50.4

BOERBOEL

5

126

5.6

47.6

NEAPOLITAN MASTIFF

6

156

2.6

47.4

ST. BERNARD

7

2124

4.1

46.8

CLUMBER SPANIEL

8

899

3.0

44.0

BLACK RUSSIAN TERRIER

9

499

3.4

43.3

SUSSEX SPANIEL

10

262

1.5

41.6

CANE CORSO

11

771

6.7

39.8

ARGENTINE DOGO

12

203

3.0

38.9

BASSET HOUND

13

200

.0

37.0

PERRO DE PRESA CANARIO

14

189

4.2

34.4

NORFOLK TERRIER

15

287

.0

33.4

AMERICAN BULLDOG

16

1792

4.9

33.0

BOYKIN SPANIEL

17

3092

2.3

32.8

GLEN OF IMAAL TERRIER

18

160

.6

30.6

SPANISH WATER DOG

19

109

5.5

30.3

FILA BRASILEIRO

20

599

7.5

30.1

FRENCH BULLDOG

21

1050

1.5

29.0

LAGOTTO ROMAGNOLO

22

116

7.8

28.4

AMERICAN STAFFORDSHIRE TERRIER

23

2944

2.4

25.9

BLOODHOUND

24

2825

2.8

25.6

NEWFOUNDLAND

25

15118

8.5

25.0

AMERICAN PIT BULL TERRIER

26

751

5.7

24.4

MAINE COON CAT

27

1096

4.2

24.3

BULLMASTIFF

28

5509

3.9

24.3

LOUISIANA CATAHOULA LEOPARD

29

552

12.0

22.1

ENGLISH SHEPHERD

30

355

11.0

21.7

CHESAPEAKE BAY RETRIEVER

31

12664

12.5

20.3

ROTTWEILER

32

93301

8.3

20.2

CARDIGAN WELSH CORGI

33

1888

3.2

20.0

GOLDEN RETRIEVER

34

133383

4.2

19.6

NORWEGIAN ELKHOUND

35

3822

7.4

19.5

MASTIFF

36

10785

7.9

19.4

CHOW CHOW

37

5286

7.3

19.4

SHIH TZU

38

623

1.9

19.3

GORDON SETTER

39

6046

8.9

19.1

GERMAN SHEPHERD DOG

40

105204

4.0

19.0

PEMBROKE WELSH CORGI

41

10962

3.2

18.8

GREATER SWISS MOUNTAIN DOG

42

2648

13.7

18.4

PYRENEAN SHEPHERD

43

114

2.6

18.4

OLD ENGLISH SHEEPDOG

44

10641

11.8

18.4

HYBRID

45

1346

8.6

18.2

GIANT SCHNAUZER

46

4341

9.9

17.9

KUVASZ

47

1754

14.2

17.9

BEAGLE

48

895

2.6

17.8

FIELD SPANIEL

49

1026

8.6

17.7

ICELANDIC SHEEPDOG

50

244

12.7

17.6

CHINOOK

51

643

10.0

17.3

STAFFORDSHIRE BULL TERRIER

52

577

1.9

17.2

SHILOH SHEPHERD

53

768

9.5

17.2

WELSH TERRIER

54

113

5.3

16.8

EPAGNEUL BRETON

55

141

2.8

16.3

ENGLISH SETTER

56

10359

10.6

16.0

ENTLEBUCHER

57

308

4.2

15.9

BERNESE MOUNTAIN DOG

58

17384

13.8

15.8

SPINONE ITALIANO

59

1167

18.3

15.8

AFFENPINSCHER

60

287

3.8

15.7

POLISH LOWLAND SHEEPDOG

61

490

8.6

15.5

AUSTRALIAN CATTLE DOG

62

3511

4.5

15.5

LABRADOODLE

63

228

10.1

15.4

HAVANA SILK DOG

64

188

2.1

15.4

CURLY-COATED RETRIEVER

65

1156

8.7

15.1

BOUVIER DES FLANDRES

66

8116

6.2

15.0

BLACK AND TAN COONHOUND

67

692

10.3

14.7

BRITTANY

68

18101

8.8

14.5

LEONBERGER

69

1664

19.8

14.1

TIBETAN MASTIFF

70

923

7.8

14.1

BRIARD

71

2397

13.3

14.0

HARRIER

72

323

9.0

13.9

BEAUCERON

73

373

13.9

13.7

CHINESE SHAR-PEI

74

9572

9.2

13.3

NORWICH TERRIER

75

794

7.1

13.2

ENGLISH SPRINGER SPANIEL

76

14741

8.8

12.9

AKITA

77

16177

19.1

12.8

PORTUGUESE WATER DOG

78

7872

14.1

12.7

CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

79

6249

4.1

12.4

KOMONDOR

80

972

12.6

12.2

SMOOTH FOX TERRIER

81

337

8.3

12.2

PUDELPOINTER

82

410

14.6

12.2

POODLE

83

22785

11.9

12.0

GREAT DANE

84

12526

11.7

12.0

IRISH SETTER

85

11237

9.2

11.9

WEST HIGHLAND WHITE TERRIER

86

312

2.9

11.9

IRISH WATER SPANIEL

87

1302

17.1

11.8

LABRADOR RETRIEVER

88

227013

18.2

11.7

BOSTON TERRIER

89

205

6.3

11.7

WELSH SPRINGER SPANIEL

90

1971

15.5

11.5

ALASKAN MALAMUTE

91

13808

16.9

11.4

AIREDALE TERRIER

92

5887

7.2

11.4

PETIT BASSET GRIFFON VENDEEN

93

706

4.1

11.2

SAMOYED

94

15905

10.5

11.0

FINNISH LAPPHUND

95

164

11.0

11.0

BOXER

96

5398

3.5

10.9

BORDER COLLIE

97

10923

13.1

10.7

ANATOLIAN SHEPHERD

98

1795

18.3

10.2

PULI

99

1746

16.7

10.0

HAVANESE

100

3106

9.2

9.9

WIREHAIRED VIZSLA

101

111

10.8

9.9

CAIRN TERRIER

102

102

2.0

9.8

AKBASH DOG

103

542

24.2

9.6

AMERICAN ESKIMO DOG

104

1012

8.9

9.5

TIBETAN SPANIEL

105

334

6.9

9.3

NORWEGIAN BUHUND

106

185

10.3

9.2

GREAT PYRENEES

107

5853

14.0

9.1

SMALL MUNSTERLANDER

108

143

14.0

9.1

SWEDISH VALLHUND

109

212

5.2

9.0

AUSTRALIAN KELPIE

110

122

9.8

9.0

GERMAN WIREHAIRED POINTER

111

4071

16.8

8.9

COTON DE TULEAR

112

703

9.5

8.8

STANDARD SCHNAUZER

113

4163

8.2

8.5

MINI AMERICAN/MINI AUSTRALIAN SHEPHERD

114

1365

17.2

8.4

WEIMARANER

115

11989

21.3

8.4

POINTER

116

1567

14.0

8.0

WIREHAIRED POINTING GRIFFON

117

1983

20.3

7.9

DUTCH SHEPHERD

118

211

17.5

7.6

AMERICAN WATER SPANIEL

119

754

10.2

7.6

FRENCH SPANIEL

120

174

18.4

7.5

BICHON FRISE

121

3482

11.4

7.1

VIZSLA

122

13484

16.7

7.0

BULL TERRIER

123

105

11.4

6.7

NOVA SCOTIA DUCK TOLLING RET.

124

1803

18.6

6.5

COCKER SPANIEL

125

12929

10.8

6.4

LHASA APSO

126

813

14.6

6.4

SCHIPPERKE

127

450

9.8

6.4

KEESHOND

128

4660

9.2

6.3

DOBERMAN PINSCHER

129

15337

18.0

6.1

BEARDED COLLIE

130

4441

16.4

6.0

HOVAWART

131

133

24.1

6.0

FINNISH SPITZ

132

324

17.0

5.9

AUSTRALIAN SHEPHERD

133

31675

16.4

5.8

AFGHAN HOUND

134

6701

29.7

5.7

ENGLISH COCKER SPANIEL

135

6874

18.9

5.7

TIBETAN TERRIER

136

3935

30.6

5.7

SHIBA INU

137

3029

18.5

5.6

KERRY BLUE TERRIER

138

1543

13.0

5.6

BELGIAN MALINOIS

139

2619

18.7

5.3

NORTH AMERICAN SHEPHERD

140

336

16.7

5.1

RHODESIAN RIDGEBACK

141

11053

22.0

4.9

IRISH RED & WHITE SETTER

142

229

31.9

4.8

IRISH WOLFHOUND

143

1771

26.5

4.8

SOFT COATED WHEATEN TERRIER

144

5952

17.0

4.8

SHETLAND SHEEPDOG

145

19651

27.6

4.6

DALMATIAN

146

3412

10.4

4.5

FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER

147

5440

19.9

4.2

GERMAN SHORTHAIRED POINTER

148

15575

25.9

4.2

BORDER TERRIER

149

2580

20.6

3.8

PARSON RUSSELL TERRIER

150

109

24.8

3.7

TOY AUSTRALIAN SHEPHERD

151

108

27.8

3.7

BASENJI

152

2539

22.8

3.6

BELGIAN TERVUREN

153

5832

26.1

3.5

RAT TERRIER

154

471

15.5

3.0

BELGIAN SHEEPDOG

155

3999

32.8

2.9

EURASIER

156

102

33.3

2.9

COLLIE

157

2909

30.4

2.8

PHARAOH HOUND

158

464

15.3

2.8

IBIZAN HOUND

159

346

35.3

2.6

CANAAN

160

438

17.1

2.3

AUSTRALIAN TERRIER

161

183

6.0

2.2

GREYHOUND

162

346

35.8

2.0

SIBERIAN HUSKY

163

17293

33.8

2.0

GERMAN PINSCHER

164

371

21.3

1.9

BORZOI

165

858

31.1

1.9

SALUKI

166

261

42.5

1.5

WHIPPET

167

161

37.9

1.2

ITALIAN GREYHOUND

168

222

59.0

.0